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Replacing JavaScript Hot Path with WebAssembly


One key benefit that WebAssembly offers is predictable performance across browsers. But how do you turn hot path written in JavaScript into WebAssembly?
Article word count: 3814

HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19166233
Posted by markdog12 (karma: 2143)
Post stats: Points: 123 - Comments: 55 - 2019-02-14T21:28:24Z

#HackerNews #hot #javascript #path #replacing #webassembly #with
Article content:




[1]Surma

In my [2]previous [3]articles I talked about how WebAssembly allows you to bring the library ecosystem of C/C++ to the web. One app that makes extensive use of C/C++ libraries is [4]squoosh, our web app that allows you compress images with a variety of codecs that have been compiled from C++ to WebAssembly.

WebAssembly is a low-level virtual machine that runs the bytecode that is stored in .wasm files. This byte code is strongly typed and structured in such a way that it can be compiled and optimized for the host system much quicker than JavaScript can. WebAssembly provides an environment to run code that had sandboxing and embedding in mind from the very start.

In my experience, most performance problems on the web are caused by forced layout and excessive paint but every now and then an app needs to do a computationally expensive task that takes a lot of time. WebAssembly can help here.

Note: Due to legal concerns, I won’t name any browsers in this article.

The Hot Path

In squoosh we wrote a [5]JavaScript function that rotates an image buffer by multiples of 90 degrees. While [6]OffscreenCanvas would be ideal for this, it isnʼt supported across the browsers we were targeting, and a little [7]buggy in Chrome.

This function iterates over every pixel of an input image and copies it to a different position in the output image to achieve rotation. For a 4094px by 4096px image (16 megapixels) it would need over 16 million iterations of the inner code block, which is what we call a "hot path". Despite that rather big number of iterations, two out of three browsers we tested finish the task in 2 seconds or less. An acceptable duration for this type of interaction.

for (let d2 = d2Start; d2 >= 0 && d2 < d2Limit; d2 += d2Advance) { for (let d1 = d1Start; d1 >= 0 && d1 < d1Limit; d1 += d1Advance) { const in_idx = ((d1 * d1Multiplier) + (d2 * d2Multiplier)); outBuffer = inBuffer[in_idx]; i += 1; }
}

One browser, however, takes over 8 seconds. The way browsers optimize JavaScript is really complicated, and different engines optimize for different things. Some optimize for raw execution, some optimize for interaction with the DOM. In this case, weʼve hit an unoptimized path in one browser.

WebAssembly on the other hand is built entirely around raw execution speed. So if we want fast, predictable performance across browsers for code like this, WebAssembly can help.

In general, JavaScript and WebAssembly can achieve the same peak performance. However, in JavaScript itʼs often tricky to stay on the "fast path". One key benefit that WebAssembly offers is predictable performance, even across browsers. The strict typing and low-level architecture allows for stronger assumptions and more optimizations during compilation. The function above is a prime candidate for WebAssembly. But how do you turn hot path written in JavaScript into WebAssembly?

Writing for WebAssembly

Previously we took C/C++ libraries and compiled them to WebAssembly to use their functionality on the web. We didnʼt really touch the code of the libraries, we just wrote small amounts of C/C++ code to form the bridge between the browser and the library. This time our motivation is different: We want to write something from scratch with WebAssembly in mind so we can make use of the advantages that WebAssembly has.
WebAssembly architecture

When writing for WebAssembly, itʼs beneficial to understand a bit more about what WebAssembly actually is.

To quote [8]WebAssembly.org:
WebAssembly (abbreviated Wasm) is a binary instruction format for a stack-based virtual machine. Wasm is designed as a portable target for compilation of high-level languages like C/C++/Rust, enabling deployment on the web for client and server applications.

When you compile a piece of C or Rust code to WebAssembly, you get a .wasm file that contains a module declaration. This declaration consists of a list of "imports" the module expects from its environment, a list of exports that this module makes available to the host (functions, constants, chunks of memory) and of course the actual binary instructions for the functions contained within.

Something that I didnʼt realize until I looked into this: The stack that makes WebAssembly a "stack-based virtual machine" is not stored in the chunk of memory that WebAssembly modules use. The stack is completely VM-internal and inaccessible to web developers (except through DevTools). As such it is possible to write WebAssembly modules that donʼt need any additional memory at all and only use the VM-internal stack.

Note: (for the curious) Compilers like Emscripten still use the WebAssembly memory to implement their own stack. This is necessary so you can access values anywhere on the stack through constructs like pointers in C, something the VM-internal stack does not allow. So, somewhat confusingly, when you run C via WebAssembly, two stacks are in use!

In our case we will need to use some additional memory to allow arbitrary access to the pixels of our image and generate a rotated version of that image. This is what WebAssembly.Memory is for.
Memory management

Commonly, once you use additional memory you will find the need to somehow manage that memory. Which parts of the memory are in use? Which ones are free? In C, for example, you have the malloc(n) function that finds a memory space of n consecutive bytes. Functions of this kind are also called "allocators". Of course the implementation of the allocator in use must be included in your WebAssembly module and will increase your file size. This size and performance of these memory management functions can vary quite significantly depending on the algorithm used, which is why many languages offer multiple implementations to choose from ("dmalloc", "emmalloc", "wee_alloc",...).

In our case we know the dimensions of the input image (and therefore the dimensions of the output image) before we run the WebAssembly module. Here we saw an opportunity: Traditionally, weʼd pass the input imageʼs RGBA buffer as a parameter to a WebAssembly function and return the rotated image as a return value. To generate that return value we would have to make use of the allocator. But since we know the total amount of memory needed (twice the size of the input image, once for input and once for output), we can put the input image into the WebAssembly memory using JavaScript, run the WebAssembly module to generate a 2nd, rotated image and then use JavaScript to read back the result. We can get away without using any memory management at all!

Spoiled for choice

If you looked at the [9]original JavaScript function that we want to WebAssembly-fy, you can see that itʼs a purely computational code with no JavaScript-specific APIs. As such it should be fairly straight forward to port this code to any language. We evaluated 3 different languages that compile to WebAssembly: C/C++, Rust and AssemblyScript. The only question we need to answer for each of the languages is: How do we access raw memory without using memory management functions?

Note: I skipped the "boring" parts in the code samples and focused on the actual hot path and the memory access. The full version of each sample along with the benchmark can be found in the [10]gist.
C and Emscripten

Emscripten is a C compiler for the WebAssembly target. Emscriptenʼs goal is to function as a drop-in replacement for well-known C compilers like GCC or clang and is mostly flag compatible. This is a core part of the Emscriptenʼs mission as it wants to make compiling existing C and C++ code to WebAssembly as easy as possible.

Accessing raw memory is in the very nature of C and pointers exist for that very reason:

uint8_t* ptr = (uint8_t*)0x124;
ptr [0]= 0xFF;

Here we are turning the number 0x124 into a pointer to unsigned, 8-bit integers (or bytes). This effectively turns the ptr variable into an array starting at memory address 0x124, that we can use like any other array, allowing us to access individual bytes for reading and writing. In our case we are looking at an RGBA buffer of an image that we want to re-order to achieve rotation. To move a pixel we actually need to move 4 consecutive bytes at once (one byte for each channel: R, G, B and A). To make this easier we can create an array of unsigned, 32-bit integers. By convention, our input image will start at address 4 and our output image will start directly after the input image ends:

int bpp = 4;
int imageSize = inputWidth * inputHeight * bpp;
uint32_t* inBuffer = (uint32_t[i]) 4;
uint32_t
outBuffer = (uint32_t*) (inBuffer + imageSize); for (int d2 = d2Start; d2 >= 0 && d2 < d2Limit; d2 += d2Advance) { for (int d1 = d1Start; d1 >= 0 && d1 < d1Limit; d1 += d1Advance) { int in_idx = ((d1 * d1Multiplier) + (d2 * d2Multiplier)); outBuffer [i]= inBuffer[in_idx]; i += 1; }
}

Note: The reason we chose to start at address 4 and not 0 is because address 0 has a special meaning in many languages: Itʼs the dreaded null pointer. While technically 0 is a perfectly valid address, many languages exclude 0 as a valid value for pointers and either throw an exception or just tumble into undefined behavior.

After porting the entire JavaScript function to C, we can compile [11]the C file with emcc:

$ emcc -O3 -s ALLOW_MEMORY_GROWTH=1 -o c.js rotate.c

As always, emscripten generates a glue code file called c.js and a wasm module called c.wasm. Note that the wasm module gzips to only ~260 Bytes, while the glue code is around 3.5KB after gzip. After some fiddling, we were able to ditch the glue code and instantiate the WebAssembly modules with the vanilla APIs. This is often possible with Emscripten as long as you are not using anything from the C standard library.

Note: We are working with the Emscripten team to make the glue code smaller or even non-existent at times.
Rust

Rust is a new, modern programming language with a rich type system, no runtime and an ownership model that guarantees memory-safety and thread-safety. Rust also supports WebAssembly as a first-class citizen and the Rust team has contributed a lot of excellent tooling to the WebAssembly ecosystem.

One of these tools is [12]wasm-pack, by the [13]rustwasm working group. wasm-pack takes your code and turns it into a web-friendly module that works out-of-the-box with bundlers like webpack. wasm-pack is an extremely convenient experience, but currently only works for Rust. The group is considering to add support for other WebAssembly-targeting languages.

In Rust, slices are what arrays are in C. And just like in C, we need to create slices that use our start addresses. This goes against the memory safety model that Rust enforces, so to get our way we have to use the unsafe keyword, allowing us to write code that doesnʼt comply with that model.

Note: This is not a best practice. In our experience it is usually worth it to use binding mechanisms like [14]embind in Emscripten or [15]wasm-bindgen for Rust to work at a higher level.

let imageSize = (inputWidth * inputHeight) as usize;
let inBuffer: &mut [u32];
let outBuffer: &mut [u32];
unsafe { inBuffer = slice::from_raw_parts_mut::(4 as *mut u32, imageSize); outBuffer = slice::from_raw_parts_mut::((imageSize * 4 + 4) as *mut u32, imageSize);
} for d2 in 0..d2Limit { for d1 in 0..d1Limit { let in_idx = (d1Start + d1 * d1Advance) * d1Multiplier + (d2Start + d2 * d2Advance) * d2Multiplier; outBuffer[i as usize] = inBuffer[in_idx as usize]; i += 1; }
}

Compiling the Rust files using

$ wasm-pack build

yields a 7.6KB wasm module with about 100 bytes of glue code (both after gzip).
AssemblyScript

[16]AssemblyScript is a fairly young project that aims to be a TypeScript-to-WebAssembly compiler. Itʼs important to note, however, that it wonʼt just consume any TypeScript. AssemblyScript uses the same syntax as TypeScript but switches out the standard library for their own. Their standard library models the capabilities of WebAssembly. That means you canʼt just compile any TypeScript you have lying around to WebAssembly, but it does mean that you donʼt have to learn a new programming language to write WebAssembly!

for (let d2 = d2Start; d2 >= 0 && d2 < d2Limit; d2 += d2Advance) { for (let d1 = d1Start; d1 >= 0 && d1 < d1Limit; d1 += d1Advance) { let in_idx = ((d1 * d1Multiplier) + (d2 * d2Multiplier)); store(offset + i * 4 + 4, load(in_idx * 4 + 4)); i += 1; }
}

Considering the small type surface that our rotate() function has, it was fairly easy to port this code to AssemblyScript. The functions load(ptr: usize) and store(ptr: usize, value: T) are provided by AssemblyScript to access raw memory. To compile [17]our AssemblyScript file, we only need to install the AssemblyScript/assemblyscript npm package and run

$ asc rotate.ts -b assemblyscript.wasm --validate -O3

AssemblyScript will provide us with a ~300 Bytes wasm module and no glue code. The module just works with the vanilla WebAssembly APIs.

WebAssembly Forensics

Rustʼs 7.6KB is surprisingly big when compared to the 2 other languages. There are a couple of tools in the WebAssembly ecosystem that can help you analyze your WebAssembly files (regardless of the language the got created with) and tell you what is going on and also help you improve your situation.
Twiggy

[18]Twiggy is another tool from Rustʼs WebAssembly team that extracts a bunch of insightful data from a WebAssembly module. The tool is not Rust-specific and allows you to inspect things like the moduleʼs call graph, determine unused or superfluous sections and figure out which sections are contributing to the total file size of your module. The latter can be done with Twiggyʼs top command:

$ twiggy top rotate_bg.wasm

In this case we can see that a majority of our file size stems from the allocator. That was surprising since our code is not using dynamic allocations. Another big contributing factor is a "function names" subsection.
wasm-strip

wasm-strip is a tool from the [19]WebAssembly Binary Toolkit, or wabt for short. It contains a couple of tools that allow you to inspect and manipulate WebAssembly modules. wasm2wat is a disassembler that turns a binary wasm module into a human-readable format. Wabt also contains wat2wasm which allows you to turn that human-readable format back into a binary wasm module. While we did use these two complementary tools to inspect our WebAssembly files, we found wasm-strip to be the most useful. wasm-strip removes unnecessary sections and metadata from a WebAssembly module:

$ wasm-strip rotate_bg.wasm

This reduces the file size of the rust module from 7.5KB to 6.6KB (after gzip).
wasm-opt

wasm-opt is a tool from [20]Binaryen. It takes a WebAssembly module and tries to optimize it both for size and performance based only on the bytecode. Some tools like Emscripten already run this tool, some others do not. Itʼs usually a good idea to try and save some additional bytes by using these tools.

wasm-opt -O3 -o rotate_bg_opt.wasm rotate_bg.wasm

With wasm-opt we can shave off another handful of bytes to leave a total of 6.2KB after gzip.
#![no_std]

After some consultation and research, we re-wrote our Rust code without using Rustʼs standard library, using the [21]#! [no_std]feature. This also disables dynamic memory allocations altogether, removing the allocator code from our module. Compiling [22]this Rust file with

$ rustc --target=wasm32-unknown-unknown -C opt-level=3 -o rust.wasm rotate.rs

yielded a 1.6KB wasm module after wasm-opt, wasm-strip and gzip. While it is still bigger than the modules generated by C and AssemblyScript, it is small enough to be considered a lightweight.

Note: According to Twiggy, the main contributor to the file size is core::fmt, a module that generates turns data into strings (like Cʼs printf()). It is used by code paths that could trigger an exception as they generate a human-readable exception messages. Rustʼs WebAssembly team is aware of this and is actively working on improvements here.

Performance

Before we jump to conclusions based on file size alone — we went on this journey to optimize performance, not file size. So how did we measure performance and what were the results?
How to benchmark

Despite WebAssembly being a low-level bytecode format, it still needs to be sent through a compiler to generate host-specific machine code. Just like JavaScript, the compiler works in multiple stages. Said simply: The first stage is much faster at compiling but tends to generate slower code. Once the module starts running, the browser observes which parts are frequently used and sends those through a more optimizing but slower compiler.

Our use-case is interesting in that the code for rotating an image will be used once, maybe twice. So in the vast majority of cases we will never get the benefits of the optimizing compiler. This is important to keep in mind when benchmarking. Running our WebAssembly modules 10,000 times in a loop would give unrealistic results. To get realistic numbers, we should run the module once and make decisions based on the numbers from that single run.

Note: Ideally, we should have automated this process of reloading the page and running the module once, and doing that process a large number of times. We decided that a few manual runs are good enough to make an informed decision based on those averaged numbers.
Performance comparison

These two graphs are different views onto the same data. In the first graph we compare per browser, in the second graph we compare per language used. Please note that I chose a logarithmic timescale. It’s also important that all benchmarks were using the same 16 megapixel test image and the same host machine, except for one browser, which could not be run on the same machine.

Without analyzing these graphs too much, it is clear that we solved our original performance problem: All WebAssembly modules run in ~500ms or less. This confirms what we laid out at the start: WebAssembly gives you predictable performance. No matter which language we choose, the variance between browsers and languages is minimal. To be exact: The standard deviation of JavaScript across all browsers is ~400ms, while the standard deviation of all our WebAssembly modules across all browsers is ~80ms.

Effort

Another metric is the amount of effort we had to put in to create and integrate our WebAssembly module into squoosh. It is hard to assign a numeric value to effort, so I wonʼt create any graphs but there are a few things I would like to point out:

AssemblyScript was frictionless. Not only does it allow you to use TypeScript to write WebAssembly, making code-review very easy for my colleagues, but it also produces glue-free WebAssembly modules that are very small with decent performance. The tooling in the TypeScript ecosystem, like prettier and tslint, will likely just work.

Rust in combination with wasm-pack is also extremely convenient, but excels more at bigger WebAssembly projects were bindings and memory management are needed. We had to diverge a bit from the happy-path to achieve a competitive file size.

C and Emscripten created a very small and highly performant WebAssembly module out of the box, but without the courage to jump into glue code and reduce it to the bare necessities the total size (WebAssembly module + glue code) ends up being quite big.

Conclusion

So what language should you use if you have a JS hot path and want to make it faster or more consistent with WebAssembly. As always with performance questions, the answer is: It depends. So what did we ship?

Note: Again, please note that both axis are logarithmic and that the x axis goes to 2000 Bytes, while the y axis goes up to 10 seconds.

Comparing at the module size / performance tradeoff of the different languages we used, the best choice seems to be either C or AssemblyScript. [23]We decided to ship Rust. There are multiple reasons for this decision: All the codecs shipped in Squoosh so far are compiled using Emscripten. We wanted to broaden our knowledge about the WebAssembly ecosystem and use a different language in production. AssemblyScript is a strong alternative, but the project is relatively young and the compiler isnʼt as mature as the Rust compiler.

While the difference in file size between Rust and the other languages size looks quite drastic in the scatter graph, it is not that big a deal in reality: Loading 500B or 1.6KB even over 2G takes less than a 1/10th of a second. And Rust will hopefully close the gap in terms of module size soon.

In terms of runtime performance, Rust has a faster average across browsers than AssemblyScript. Especially on bigger projects Rust will be more likely to produce faster code without needing manual code optimizations. But that shouldnʼt keep you from using what you are most comfortable with.

That all being said: AssemblyScript has been a great discovery. It allows web developers to produce WebAssembly modules without having to learn a new language. The AssemblyScript team has been very responsive and is actively working on improving their toolchain. We will definitely keep an eye on AssemblyScript in the future.

Special thanks to [24]Ashley Williams, [25]Steve Klabnik and [26]Max Graey for all their help on this journey.

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References

Visible links
2. https://developers.google.com/web/updates/2018/03/emscripting-a-c-library
3. https://developers.google.com/web/updates/2019/01/emscripten-npm
4. https://squoosh.app/
5. https://github.com/GoogleChromeLabs/squoosh/blob/edd2c51eb6d0676a2e7b7e974337d58cbf00f1d1/src/codecs/rotate/processor.ts
6. https://developers.google.com/web/updates/2018/08/offscreen-canvas
7. https://bugs.chromium.org/p/chromium/issues/detail?id=906619
8. https://webassembly.org/
9. https://github.com/GoogleChromeLabs/squoosh/blob/edd2c51eb6d0676a2e7b7e974337d58cbf00f1d1/src/codecs/rotate/processor.ts
10. https://gist.github.com/surma/0eb306fa9acc8bdf2f58150b2f1e82b4
11. https://gist.github.com/surma/0eb306fa9acc8bdf2f58150b2f1e82b4#file-rotate-c
12. https://rustwasm.github.io/wasm-pack/
13. https://github.com/rustwasm/team
14. https://developers.google.com/web/updates/2018/08/embind
15. https://rustwasm.github.io/wasm-bindgen/
16. https://github.com/AssemblyScript/assemblyscript
17. https://gist.github.com/surma/0eb306fa9acc8bdf2f58150b2f1e82b4#file-rotate-ts
18. https://github.com/rustwasm/twiggy
19. https://github.com/WebAssembly/wabt
20. https://github.com/WebAssembly/binaryen
21. https://doc.rust-lang.org/unstable-book/language-features/lang-items.html#writing-an-executable-without-stdlib
22. https://gist.github.com/surma/0eb306fa9acc8bdf2f58150b2f1e82b4#file-rotate-rs
23. https://github.com/GoogleChromeLabs/squoosh/pull/438/files
24. https://twitter.com/ag_dubs
25. https://twitter.com/steveklabnik
26. https://twitter.com/MaxGraey
27. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new
28. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new
29. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new
30. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new
31. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new
32. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new
33. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new
34. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new
35. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new
36. https://github.com/google/webfundamentals/issues/new

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Add limits to amount of JavaScript that can be loaded by a website


Bug 194028: Add limits to the amount of JavaScript that can be loaded by a website
Article word count: 16

HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19038092
Posted by ingve (karma: 96887)
Post stats: Points: 96 - Comments: 120 - 2019-01-30T18:59:54Z

\#HackerNews #add #amount #can #javascript #limits #loaded #that #website
Article content:

Bug 194028: Add limits to the amount of JavaScript that can be loaded by a website

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